Tuesday, 26 November 2019

Indian Constitution




26 November is commemorated as the National Constitution Day. The Indian Constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly having 284 members, with BR Ambedkar, Chairman of the drafting committee. And he was considered as the chief architect of the constitution. It’s considered to be the most complete constitution. It was effective from 26 January 1950. Indian citizens and politicians vouch by the Indian Constitution....



The Constitution of India or Bhāratīya Saṃvidhān as it known in Hindi is the supreme law in India. A Constitution is a set of rules and regulations guiding the administration of a country. The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. The document lays down the framework demarcating fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens.

It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950. The constitution replaced the Government of India Act, 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document, and the Dominion of India became the Republic of India. To ensure constitutional autochthony, its framers repealed prior acts of the British parliament in Article 395. India celebrates its constitution on 26 January as Republic Day.

Constituent Assembly of India meeting
 in 1950
The constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens justice, equality and liberty, and endeavors to promote fraternity. The original 1950 constitution is preserved at the Parliament House in New Delhi. The words "secular" and "socialist" were added to the preamble in 1976 during the emergency.

The constitution was drawn from a number of sources. Mindful of India's needs and conditions, its framers borrowed features of previous legislation such as the Government of India Act 1858, the Indian Councils Acts of 1861, 1892 and 1909, the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935, and the Indian Independence Act 1947. The latter, led to the creation of India and Pakistan, divided the former Constituent Assembly in two. Each new assembly had sovereign power to draft and enact a new constitution for the separate states.

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B. R. Ambedkar, Sanjay Phakey, Jawaharlal Nehru, C Rajagopalachari, Rajendra Prasad, Vallabhbhai Patel, Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi, Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar, Sandipkumar Patel, Abdul Kalam AzadAbul Kalam, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Nalini Ranjan Ghosh and Balwantrai Mehta were key figures in the assembly, which had over 30 representatives of the scheduled classes. Frank Anthony represented the Anglo-Indian community, and the Parsis were represented by H. P. Modi. Harendra Coomar Mookerjeee, a Christian assembly vice-president, chaired the minorities committee and represented non-Anglo-Indian Christians. Ari Bahadur Gurung represented the Gorkha community. Judges, such as Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, Benegal Narsing Rau, K. M. Munshi and Ganesh Mavlankar were members of the assembly. Female members included Sarojini Naidu, Hansa Mehta, Durgabai Deshmukh, Amrit Kaur and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit.

Jawaharlal Nehru signing the
constitution
The first, two-day president of the assembly was Sachchidananda Sinha; Rajendra Prasad was later elected president. It met for the first time on 9 December 1946.

26 November is commemorated as the National Constitution Day. The Indian Constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly having 284 members, with BR Ambedkar, Chairman of the drafting committee. And he was considered as the chief architect of the constitution. It’s considered to be the most complete constitution. It was effective from 26 January 1950. Indian citizens and politicians vouch by the Indian Constitution.

Interesting facts about the Indian Constitution:
*The longest constitution in the world – The Indian Constitution is the longest of any sovereign country in the world. At the time of its commencement, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules.

Constituent Assembly- Dr BR Ambedkar
Chairman of Drafting Committee
presenting the final draft of Constitution

*Handwritten by Prem Behari Narain Raizada – The original Constitution of India was handwritten by Prem Behari Narain Raizada in flowing italic style with beautiful calligraphy. Each page was beautified and decorated by artists from Shantiniketan.
*200 amendments later – The Constituent Assembly, which first met on Dec 9, 1946, took precisely two years, 11 months and 18 days to come up with a final draft. When the first draft was prepared and put for debate and discussion; over 2000 amendments were made before it was finalized.
*Safely stored away – The original copies of the Indian Constitution, written in both Hindi and English, are kept in special helium-filled cases in the Library of the Parliament of India.
*Known as ‘A Bag of Borrowings’ – The Indian Constitution has drawn from constitutions of various nations around the world such as France, the USSR, Germany and more. For this reason, our constitution is often known as a bag of borrowings.


The Indian constitution is the world’s longest for a sovereign nation. At its enactment, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. At about 145,000 words, it is the second-longest active constitution – after the Constitution of Alabama – in the world.
The constitution has a preamble and 448 articles, which are grouped into 25 parts. With 12 schedules and five appendices, it has been amended 103 times.







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Strange New Year Traditions

*In India and other places a giant old man made of hay, etc and dressed in old shirt and pant is burnt at the stroke of midnight, signifying the end of the old year and the beginning of the New Year.
*In Bolivia, Venezuela, men wear new underpants on New Year’s eve – red underpants for love and yellow for money.
*Spaniards eat 12 grapes at midnight; each grape symbolizing one month of year.
*The Filipinos wear polka dots and arrange round fruits on the dinner table. Polka and all things round signify coins, hence prosperity.
*In Scotland, the townsmen walk around with giant fireballs hoisted on long poles (resembling the sun) to purify the coming year.
* The Danes break glass dishes on the doors of neighbours and friends.
*Estonians eat seven times on the first day of the year to ensure abundant food throughout the year.
*Unmarried Irish girls place mistletoe leaves under the pillow to catch a good husband.


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Picture Post:


Chittorgarh Fort, Rajasthan
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Bharata, My Brother
by Anil Kumar Naik

- Foreword by Shri Asaranna Swami,
Durga Parmeshwari temple, Kateel, Karnataka.

Price: Rs 200 + P&F Rs 50

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Saturday, 2 November 2019

Hyperloop – futuristic travel!






 In December 2017, Hyperloop One’s pod reached a top speed of over 38 Kmph on its test track in the Nevada desert, north of Las Vegas. The targeted speed is 1,223 Kmph. Propulsion is required for only 5 percent of the track. Once the top speed is reached, a pod can glide for 100 miles without the application of any energy.

It can go to a maximum speed of approx 1000 Kmph. It’s about approximately twice faster than the bullet train and about ten times faster than the traditional rail. A real game-changer is mass transportation. A futuristic travel mode!


The hyperloop train in its current version was conceptualized by billionaire inventor Elon Musk, who publicized it in 2012, open-sourced it and encouraged others to take the ideas and develop them. Hyperloop One, is now called Virgin Hyperloop One. Hyperloop One’s first-generation pod combines a carbon fibre shell around a custom-built levitating chasis. The aeroshell is made of carbon fibre panels. The material is much lighter and stronger than steel. The levitating chasis is made of aluminum and houses the propulsion system and magnets for levitation and guidance. Its design is similar to a Formula 1 car. It is built like a shell to be lightweight but strong.

It is not operational anywhere in the world as yet but feasibility studies are underway. Hyperloop is conceptualized to operate in vacuum or low pressure tunnels on columns or underground. At 1000 kmph, it is likely to be the fastest mass transportation system in the world. It is designed to consume relatively less energy, thus making it cheaper and environment friendly.

Plans are underway to connect Mumbai with Pune through Hyperloop. The estimated cost of the route is around Rs 20,000 crore, which officials say works out cheaper than other forms of high-speed on-ground travel. The system will have a capacity of 150 million passengers per year, saving more than 90 million hours of travel.

Can high-speed, energy-efficient travel improve the quality of living in Indian cities? A Mumbai-Pune hyperloop of 140 Km is planned and likely to be operational by 2024. This will reduce the time taken to cover the distance between the two cities from three hours to just 25-30 minutes. Such a system may soon become a reality, as announced at Mumbai at the investment summit Magnetic Maharastra held some months ago. Besides, a US-based company has also proposed to evaluate construction of five Hyperloop lines in India – Bangalore to Chennai, Mumbai to Chennai via Bangalore, Bangalore to Thiruvanthapuram, Mumbai to Delhi and Mumbai to Kolkata. Feasibility studies are also proposed in Andhra Pradesh, connecting the new state capital Amravati to Vijaywada and Vishakhapatanam.

Imagine hopping on to a car shaped pod in Mumbai and being zipped away inside a 140-Km long vacuum tube and reaching Pune in 25 minutes. For the harried citizen facing traffic jams and crowded roads, this would be a boon. This may push the convectional mode of transport to just old memories.

The magical concept that can transport people and goods in pod like vehicles propelled through vacuum tubes with magnetic levitation, Hyperloop will be magical and exciting energy-efficient and emission-free high speed high speed travel. Hyperloop is a futuristic idea and if implemented, change the way we travel. However, the initial capital cost and investment is likely to be very high, with long term gains in energy and operational costs.

According to the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Maharastra government, Prithvi Sankar, Business Development head, Hyperloop India; hopes to complete a ten Km long test track on the Mumbai-Pune route within two years, to assess the feasibility of this technology in India.

R Branson, Chairman of Virgin Hyperloop One (VHO), said his company had signed an intent agreement with the state government to develop a hyperloop route between Pune Central, the proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport and Mumbai, beginning with an operational demonstration track. He said that the near supersonic mode of on-ground passenger travel could cut travel time considerably. The hyperloop mode uses technology in which a vehicle in a special tunnel floats above the track, using magnetic levitation, at a top speed over 1000 Kmph.

With Hyperloop test tracks and trial runs being undertaken all over the world from the US to South Korea and UAE to Slovakia, many experts believe that India could be among the early adopters of this technology.

However in a country like India, as in most infrastructure and development projects, land acquisition is a major challenge, followed by the large cost factor. If these hurdles are overcome with proper compensation to land owners and allocation of funds for this new project, it will be a game-changer in long distance mass transportation.



Rama & Thailand ?

You must be aware, centuries ago, the influence of Hinduism and Buddhism spread to Far East and South East Asian countries like Cambodia (earlier known as Kambhoj), Thailand, Indonesia, etc. Did you know that in Bangkok, has a Sri Ayodhya road and Rama-I road. There are more such interesting facts.

Bangkok itself was established as the capital of Thailand by King Rama –I, the founder of the Chakri dynasty. It is evident from the history of Thailand that many generations of Thai Kings have identified themselves with Rama, who was regarded as an ideal ruler. And therefore, successive kings of the dynasty, have continued to hold the title of Rama with their names. The present king, His Majesty Bhumi Pol Adulyadej, is called King Rama –IX.

Alongwith Buddhism, the Hindu epic of Ramayana (known as Ramakin in Thai version) has excerised powerful influence over the Thai people. There is another Ayodhaya situated about 90 km north of Bangkok. Now lying in ruins, this ancient city, known as Ayutthaya in Thai, was founded as the capital of Thailand in 1350 by King Rama Thibode.


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Picture Post:

Bappanadu Durga Parmeshwari Temple,
 Mulki, Mangalore, Karnataka
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