Thursday, 27 January 2022

The Journey of Susan Wojcicki


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The Journey of Susan Wojcicki

Mission to acquire You Tube - ‘I saw an opportunity to combine the two services,’ Wojcicki said. She worked up some spread sheets to justify the $1.65 billion purchase price and convinced the founders. In 2006, despite board members finding the growth figures ambitious, she got Google the green light to purchase YouTube.....

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This is an amazing journey of a woman from a garage owner to Google’s 16th employee and CEO of You Tube. Susan Diane Wojcicki is a Polish-American business executive who is the CEO of YouTube. She has been in the tech industry for over 20 years. Wojcicki was involved in the founding of Google, and became Google's first marketing manager in 1999.

Susan Diane Wojcicki was born on July 5, 1968 to Esther Wojcicki, an educator of Jewish descent, and Stanley Wojcicki, a Polish-American physics professor at Stanford University. She has two sisters: Janet Wojcicki, (PhD, anthropologist and epidemiologist) and Anne Wojcicki, founder of 23andMe. She grew up on the Stanford campus with George Dantzig as a neighbor. She attended Gunn High School in Palo Alto, California, and wrote for the school newspaper.

Wojcicki's first business was selling "spice ropes" door-to-door at age 11. A Humanities major in college, she took her first computer science class as a senior. Wojcicki studied history and literature at Harvard University and graduated with honors in 1990. She originally planned on getting a Ph.D. in economics and pursuing a career in academia but changed her plans when she discovered an interest in technology.

She also received her Master's of Science in economics from the University of California, Santa Cruz in 1993 and a Master of Business Administration from the UCLA Anderson School of Management in 1998.

It all began here. Upon completing her MBA in 1998, Susan Wojcicki bought a house in Menlo Park, California for $600,000. To help pay her mortgage, she rented out her garage to Larry Page and Sergey Brin, who were developing their new search engine – Google.

‘When Larry and Sergey would be there, and I would come and talk to them, I did realize what they were working on. I realised like wow, this is really making a difference and it can help me find information, Wojcicki said in an interview.

Realizing it to be a compelling concept, in 1999, Susan joined Google as its 16th employee – and its first marketing manager. One of her early projects was to liven up the Google logo for holidays and special events.

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In 2003, she suggested Google’s ad offering not only be available within search but also on websites across the internet, and AdSense was born – that drastically increased Google’s advertising potential. Today, over 39 million websites use AdSense, as per BuiltWith. Google’s total ad revenue in 2020 was over $146 billion.

Next from Google Video to You Tube. Wojcicki saw how user-generated videos could spark emotions after launching Google Video, a free video-sharing website, and hearing her kids’ reactions. But the user-generated content wasn’t immediately available on Google Video and by the time the design flaw was fixed, You Tube acquired a significant chunk of market share but had no resources to keep up with the demand.

Mission to acquire You Tube - ‘I saw an opportunity to combine the two services,’ Wojcicki said. She worked up some spread sheets to justify the $1.65 billion purchase price and convinced the founders. In 2006, despite board members finding the growth figures ambitious, she got Google the green light to purchase YouTube.

In 2010, she was promoted to one of the eight Senior Vice Presidents of Google and by 2014, she replaced Google’s 9th employee Salar Kamangar, as the CEO of YouTube. Under her leadership, YouTube has grown to over 2 billion monthly logged-in users, with people watching over a billion hours of video, generating billions of views every day.

In 1999, Wojcicki became Google’s first employee to go maternity leave and during her first year as YouTube CEO, she took another maternity leave. ‘Support for motherhood shouldn’t be a matter of luck, it should be a matter of course,’ she wrote in her op-ed, advocating that the US become a leader in maternity leave benefits. She helped lead the charge on family leave at Google for new mothers and fathers.

She has been an outspoken proponent.  ‘Tech is an incredible force that will change our world. If that force is only 20 to 30% women, that is a problem,’ she said in 2018.Susan has been active in various initiatives like voicing the plight of Syrian refugees, countering gender discrimination, and prioritizing coding in schools. She wrote and published pieces like – How to Break Up the Silicon Valley Boy’s Club.

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Strange New Year Traditions

*In India and other places a giant old man made of hay, etc and dressed in old shirt and pant is burnt at the stroke of midnight, signifying the end of the old year and the beginning of the New Year.

*In Bolivia, Venezuela, men wear new underpants on New Year’s Eve – red underpants for love and yellow for money.

*Spaniards eat 12 grapes at midnight; each grape symbolizing one month of year.

*The Filipinos wear polka dots and arrange round fruits on the dinner table. Polka and all things round signify coins, hence prosperity.

*In Scotland, the townsmen walk around with giant fireballs hoisted on long poles (resembling the sun) to purify the coming year.

* The Danes break glass dishes on the doors of neighbours and friends.

*Estonians eat seven times on the first day of the year to ensure abundant food throughout the year.

*Unmarried Irish girls place mistletoe leaves under the pillow to catch a good husband.

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IT hub in India, Pune, Maharasthra
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Tuesday, 25 January 2022

Internet wars under the sea!


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Internet wars under the sea!

There is a secret internet war going under the sea. Why are tech giants laying submarine cables? Today, in the internet era, have you ever wondered how data travels across the world so fast?....

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It’s a cable war. A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea. The first submarine communication cables laid beginning in the 1850s carried telegraphy traffic, establishing the first instant telecommunications links between continents, such as the first transatlantic telegraph cable which became operational on 16 August 1858. Subsequent generations of cables carried telephone traffic, then data communications traffic. Modern cables use optical fiber technology to carry digital data, which includes telephone, Internet and private data traffic.

Modern cables are typically about 25 mm (1 in) in diameter and weigh around 1.4 tons per kilometer (2.5 short tons per mile; 2.2 long tons per mile) for the deep-sea sections which comprise the majority of the run, although larger and heavier cables are used for shallow-water sections near shore. Submarine cables first connected all the world's continents (except Antarctica when Java was connected to Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, in 1871 in anticipation of the completion of the Australian Overland Telegraph Line in 1872 connecting to Adelaide, South Australia, and thence to the rest of Australia.

No technology is as profoundly important to the global economy as the internet, which is dependent on the security of a vast network of some 750,000 miles of seabed cables that interweave the oceans’ depths. The interdependence of global submarine communication systems means that a break in one cable can have cascading effects on internet access to distant states. While the rules to protect this critical infrastructure in peacetime should be refurbished, the need to further develop the rules to secure this global infrastructure during periods of armed conflict is perhaps even more compelling. Although several peacetime treaties protect submarine cables from disruption and criminal acts, albeit weakly, the rules that apply during naval war are even more antiquated. Because the law of naval warfare is principally based on custom and state practice rather than treaties, there is considerable uncertainty over how submarine cables would fare in conflict at sea.

There is a secret internet war going under the sea. Why are tech giants laying submarine cables? Today, in the internet era, have you ever wondered how data travels across the world so fast?

Submarine cables laid under the sea working on fiber-optic technology transmit data with the help of lasers that fire beams of light on one end of the cable at extremely high rates to send it to the other end.

*The data, for example – an email sent via cables/radio waves

*Router/Cellphone tower Internet Exchange (Sorting office) via fiber-optic cables

*Landing office via submarine cables.

 *The data’s journey continues on land similarly. As of now, the world has 1.3 million km of submarine cables in service.

*428 active submarine cables and 36 planned.

1,245 landing stations – 98% of all international internet traffic travels via submarine cables.

From less than 10% of total usage before 2012, content providers’ (Google, Face Book, Microsoft, etc) share of capacity surged to 66% in 2020.

With the rise of tech giants in the 21st century and their services like cloud computing and streaming, Tele Geography researcher Alam Mauldin says- They have more demand for bandwidth than anyone else.

Content providers have spent over $1.5 billion on cable construction in the last 5 years. Google has investments in 16 subsea cables. Recently it announced the construction of the world’s longest cable, Firming cable.

Face Book has stakes in around 12 Amazon and Microsoft have funded about 5 cables each. The reliance on submarine cables has propelled the tech giants into geopolitics. And it has generated a lot of interest among tech giants. And its tremendous possibilities have attracted many.

Many analysts believe that Chinese company Huawei’s involvement in the construction and repair of undersea cables worldwide could allow China to disrupt the internet connection in between nations, echoing strategies employed during wars. In March, Face Book dropped plans for a California – Hong Kong cable, reportedly due to pressure from the US government.

In 2018, Australia prevented Huawei from funding a cable over security concerns. The Royal Navy said it is building a surveillance ship to protect critical cables, citing a sabotage risk due to submarine warfare. Satellites are being discussed as a potential alternative that many may one day dominate the markets.

However, submarine cables continue to be best placed to meet the demand of carrying large amount of data. With increasing demand and development, it’s believed that the submarine cables race between the big tech giants is unlikely to slow down.

Currently, the world's longest undersea cable is SEA-ME-WE3 or South-East Asia - Middle East - Western Europe 3 that is 39,000 kilometers long and was completed in 2000. It has 39 landing points.

As of May 2014, the Internet is delivered to India mainly by 9 different undersea fibres, including SEA-ME-WE 3, Bay of Bengal Gateway and Europe India Gateway, arriving at 5 different landing points. India also has one overland internet connection, at the city of Agartala near the border with Bangladesh.

Currently, there are 15 subsea cables (17 if Seacom and MENA are considered seperate cables) landing in 15 cable landing stations in 5 cities across India, in Mumbai, Chennai, Cochin, Tuticorin and Trivandrum. The two cables that Reliance Jio is laying are called India-Asia-Xpress (IAX) and India-Europe-Xpress (IEX). The IAX system will connect India eastbound to Singapore and beyond, while the IEX system will connect the country westbound to West Asia and Europe. Mukesh Ambani-led Reliance Jio Infocomm said that it will be constructing the largest international submarine cable system centred on India. 

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Manifestation of Shiva


Khandoba, Martanda Bhairav or Malhari, is the Maratha manifestation of Shiva mainly in the Deccan plateau, though he is identified with Kartikeya and with Vishnu and also with sun. In Andhra, he is called Mallikarjuna and in Karnataka, he is Mallanna. Jains have identified him with Mallinath. Muslims who have a long history in Deccan region, identify him as Mallu Khan. 

He is visualized as riding a white horse brandishing a sword. He wears a Maratha turban, has a magnificent moustache and beard. Accompanying him on his horse is his main wife, Mhalsa. Jejuri is a town close to Pune in Maharastra. It is famous for the main temple devoted to Lord Khandoba.


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Dharmastala Temple, Mangalore

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Thursday, 6 January 2022

Big Business in Space!

 


Big Business in Space!

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More than half of Earth’s operational satellites are launched for commercial purposes. About 61 per cent of those provide communication, including satellite TV and Internet......

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The question is who owns the Earth’s Orbit? With emerging technologies, space operators have set their sight on mass connectivity, analytics and earth monitoring. Hope countries don’t quarrel for space in the orbit!

In 2020 around 1,283 satellites were launched, which stands as the highest number of satellite launches in a year as compared to all the previous. A satellite orbits Earth when its speed is balanced by the pull of Earth's gravity. Without this balance, the satellite would fly in a straight line off into space or fall back to Earth. Polar-orbiting satellites travel in a north-south direction from pole to pole.

The speed a satellite must travel to stay in orbit is about 17,500 mph (28,200 km/h) at an altitude of 150 miles (242 kilometers.) However, in order to maintain an orbit that is 22,223 miles (35,786 kilometers) above Earth, a satellite orbits at a speed of about 7,000 mph (11,300 km/h).

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Space X : SpaceX designs, manufactures and launches advanced rockets and spacecraft. The company was founded in 2002 to revolutionize space technology. SpaceX designs, manufactures and launches advanced rockets.

Space Exploration Technologies Corp. is an American aerospace manufacturer, space transportation services and Communications Corporation headquartered in Hawthorne, California. SpaceX was founded in 2002 by Elon Musk with the goal of reducing space transportation costs to enable the colonization of Mars.

With 358 Satellites which is 22 per cent of all commercial satellites in space. Elon Musk’s Space X has about 350 satellites launched as of April. It added 175 satellites from August-September 2020.

Planet Labs: Planet provides daily satellite data that helps businesses, governments, researchers, and journalists understand the physical world and take action.

Planet's Constellation of satellites orbit the poles every 90 minutes. With Planet Monitoring observe areas of geographic interest. Planet's automated, cloud-based imagery and analytics platform record red, green, blue, and near-infrared.

With 246 satellites in space, their aim is to image the entirety of the Earth daily to monitor changes and pinpoint trends and changes.

Spire Global: Spire Global, Inc is a space-to-cloud data and analytics company that specializes in the tracking of global data sets powered by a large constellation of nano-satellites, such as the tracking of maritime, aviation and weather patterns.

Spire is a global data and analytics company that leverages our proprietary satellite technology to forecast the weather, and track maritime and aviation . With 89 satellites, it specializes in the tracking of global data sets.

Iridium: The Iridium satellite constellation provides L band voice and data information coverage to satellite phones, pagers and integrated transceivers over the entire surface of Earth. Iridium Communications owns and operates the constellation, additionally selling equipment and access to its services.

Iridium is a global satellite communications company, providing access to voice and data services anywhere on Earth. With its constellation of 78 satellites provides efficient service.

One Web: OneWeb (Network Access Associates Ltd) is a global communications company building a capability to deliver broadband satellite Internet services.

The OneWeb satellite constellation is a planned initial 648-satellite constellation which is in the process of being completed in 2022, with a goal to provide global satellite Internet broadband services to people everywhere, starting in 2021.

Internet access everywhere, for everyone. They are creating new connectivity infrastructure using satellites in Low Earth Orbit, enabling community communication with 74 satellites.

Do you know how many satellites orbit on earth?

Commercial – 1140 satellites, which is about 54 per cent of the orbiting satellites.

Military – 339 satellites, which is about 13 per cent.

Combination (Commercial) – With 206 satellites, it’s about 08 percent.

Civil – 113 satellites, is about 05 per cent

Combination (Other) – 112 satellites, it’s about 04 per cent.

Government – 436 satellites, which is about 16 per cent.

Defunct – 3200 satellites

(Source: UCS)

More than half of Earth’s operational satellites are launched for commercial purposes. About 61 per cent of those provide communication, including satellite TV and Internet. If not for these the world would have a quiet place without chatting, entertainment and other private and official communication.

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Temple of Nageswara Swamy

A historical temple of Nageswara Swamy buried in sand was unearthed at Perumallapadu, near Chejerla, in Nellore district. The temple, which according to the legend was consecrated by Lord Parasurama, an avatar of Lord Vishnu, got buried over a long period of time as river Penna changed its course.

Recently, villagers in a tiny Indian villagein South India unearthed a remarkable discovery, the remains of a well preserved ancient temple that has been lost to time since 1850. It was found in Perumallapadu, which is a village in the Nellore district of India.

In about 1850 AD, the village was rendered unlivable, because of the nearby Penna river rising often and kept flooding the village frequently. When everyone was fed up with the damaged it caused to their homes and fields, moved away, and slowly the sand dunes engulfed the whole temple. And when it was accidently discovered, and as the sand was slowly removed, the magnificent temple slowly emerged  in full glory after decades of being covered and hidden by mud and sand over a period of time.

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Narayani Dham, Lonavala,
Maharasthra
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