Thursday, 17 December 2020

Recent bestselling books


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Bill Gates’s favorite reads of 2020 are wide-ranging books on science, history and social justice. Whether you’re looking for a distraction or just spending a lot more time at home, you can’t beat reading a book.

Bill Gates included a number of interesting recommendations. I hope you find something that catches your interest too.

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Bill Gates 2020 summer book recommendations:

The Choice, by Dr. Edith Eva Eger

This book is partly a memoir and partly a guide to processing trauma. Eger was only sixteen years old when she and her family got sent to Auschwitz. After surviving unbelievable horrors, she moved to the United States and became a therapist. Her unique background gives her amazing insight, and I think many people will find comfort right now from her suggestions on how to handle difficult situations.

Cloud Atlas, by David Mitchell

 This is the kind of novel you’ll think and talk about for a long time after you finish it. The plot is a bit hard to explain, because it involves six inter-related stories that take place centuries apart (including one I particularly loved about a young American doctor on a sailing ship in the South Pacific in the mid-1800s). But if you’re in the mood for a really compelling tale about the best and worst of humanity, I think you’ll find yourself as engrossed in it as I was.

The Ride of a Lifetime, by Bob Iger

This is one of the best business books I’ve read in several years. Iger does a terrific job explaining what it’s really like to be the CEO of a large company. Whether you’re looking for business insights or just an entertaining read, I think anyone would enjoy his stories about overseeing Disney during one of the most transformative times in its history.

The Great Influenza, by John M. Barry

We’re living through an unprecedented time right now. But if you’re looking for a historical comparison, the 1918 influenza pandemic is as close as you’re going to get. Barry will teach you almost everything you need to know about one of the deadliest outbreaks in human history. Even though 1918 was a very different time from today, The Great Influenza is a good reminder that we’re still dealing with many of the same challenges.

Good Economics for Hard Times, by Abhijit V. Banerjee and Esther Duflo

Banerjee and Duflo won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences last year, and they’re two of the smartest economists working today. Fortunately for us, they’re also very good at making economics accessible to the average person. Their newest book takes on inequality and political divisions by focusing on policy debates that are at the forefront in wealthy countries like the United States.

Aneela Nike Post also recommends a few best selling books worth reading. And its available with Amazon








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Microsoft has new password manager for you

Microsoft has introduced a new password manager inside Authenticator app.* Microsoft's new password manager is available to Edge, Chrome, and mobile users.* It uses a Microsoft account to sync password across devices.

It is very embarassing and stressful when you forget the password and you are busy working on the laptop, and you you need to access a wbsite or app  urgently. Now you need not worry to remmember all your passwords.

It is normal today to use one too many online services because the internet is just a click away. Most of these services require you to create a password and keep your information secure. All that is good but let us be honest. Managing passwords is a hassle and can lead to problems, such as getting locked out of your accounts. Which is why there are password managers and Microsoft is launching one for Edge, Chrome, and mobile users on both Android and iOS platforms.

The new password manager from Microsoft is not a standalone app but integrated into the Microsoft Authenticator app that is used to authenticate sign-ins for Microsoft services that use two-factor authentication. The passwords synced with the Microsoft account on the Edge browser can be auto-filled in apps or websites on Chrome and Edge browsers, as well as on Android and iOS devices. To sync passwords on the Chrome browser, Microsoft has also introduced a new Microsoft Autofill extension.

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Coorg in Karnataka, India
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Email:
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Saturday, 12 December 2020

Coorg – the Scotland of India


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Coorg is a popular tourist destination, known as the Scotland of India. Coorg is home to the Kodavas. When a place is referred to as the Scotland of India, it needs no further introduction. Coorg or Kodagu is a tranquil, beautiful tourist spot in Southern Karnataka, cradled in the Western Ghats. It is famous mainly for its austere sights, varied wildlife, world-class coffee and the Kodavas, the ethnic warrior people of Coorg. Located amidst imposing mountains in Karnataka with a perpetually misty landscape, Coorg is the place to be for all nature lovers. This popular coffee producing hill station is not only popular for its beautiful green hills and the streams cutting right through them. A pristine sight among the rolling hills and lush green plains is worth admiring.

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Coorg or Kodagu is a mesmerizing place. Waking up to the smell of tranquilizing coffee, and enjoying the scenic beauty of this misty land of hills and streams is enjoyable. As its popularly known as the Scotland of India, Coorg lives up to its name with a luring combination of history, climate, greenery, hills, luxury, adventure and mouth-watering cuisine. Located along the Western ghats, this popular coffee-producing hill station is well-known for its jaw-dropping ravishing scenery and opulence. Stunning mountains, the cascading water falls, and eye-feasting view of the flora and fauna makes this place a perfect holiday destination for people who need an escape from their routine, monotonous and hectic life. A preferred destination for trekking sports and white water rafting, Coorg qualifies to be the perfect location for the   thrill-seekers with trekking, rafting, rock climbing and other adventure sports.

Coorg is known for its eminent soldiers and sportsmen. Coorg has given India some top Generals and army chiefs like Gen Cariappa, Gen Thimmaya, while A Aiyappa , CN Somanna, BC Nanda, BK Bopanna and BK Chegappa servd as lieutenant Generals, the second topmost position, and sportsmen like Robin Uthappa in cricket, Ashwini Nachappa in athletics, Ashwini Ponnappa in badminton  and MP Ganesh, Len Aiyappa, BP Govinda, AB Subbaiah and Somaiya in Hocky and Joshna Chinappa in squash and many others. Over the years, the Indian hockey team always boasted of players from Coorg. But apart from these top personalities, Coorg is a top hill station in Karnataka attracting a lot of tourists.

Some even see a lot of similarities between the place and people from Himachal Pradesh and Coorg, like their physical appearance,the way they dress and the folk dances and with most men in the armed forces. The similarities end there. Unlike Himachal Pradesh in north India, Coorg is located in south, in the state of Karnataka in the Western Ghat mountain range. Scotland is well known throughout the world for its vast stretches of lush greenery, beautiful rolling hills, and numerous fresh water bodies. It comes as no surprise then that Coorg, with its misty climate and hill station environment, is known as the Scotland of India.

Kodagu (also known by its former name Coorg) is an administrative district in the Karnataka state of India. Before 1956, it was an administratively separate Coorg State, at which point it was merged into an enlarged Mysore State. In 2001 its population was 548,561, 13.74% of which resided in the district's urban centre, making it the least populous of the 30 districts in Karnataka. The nearest railway stations are Mysore Junction, located around 95 km away and Thalassery and Kannur in Kerala, at a distance of 79 km. The nearest airports are Kannur International Airport in Kerala (59 km from Kodagu) and Mangalore International Airport (117 km from Kodagu).

Kodagu is located on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats. It has a geographical area of 4,102 sq km. The district is bordered by Dakshina Kannada district to the northwest, Hassan district to the north, Mysore district to the east, Kasaragod district of Kerala in west and Kannur district of Kerala to the southwest, and Wayanad district of Kerala to the south. It is a hilly district, the lowest elevation of which is 120 metres (390 ft) above sea-level. The highest peak, Tadiandamol, rises to 1,750 metres (5,740 ft), with Pushpagiri, the second highest, at 1,715 metres (5,627 ft). The main river in Kodagu is the Kaveri (Cauvery), which originates at Talakaveri, located on the eastern side of the Western Ghats, and with its tributaries, flows the greater part of Kodagu. The district is divided into five administrative taluks: *Madikeri *Virajpet *Somwarpet *Ponnampet *Kushalnagar.

Not just the scintillating beauty, this misty landscape has a rich culture and a unique local clan Kodavas, a martial race, also widely known for their hospitality. Ranging from admiring the beauty of this heavenly destination to a challenging trek or deep insight into the culture at the Madikeri Fort to the enthralling adventure at Abbey falls or the spicy curries to the sweet heart-melting handmade truffles, Coorg will make you oscillate to the extremes in everything, from beautiful sights, food and nature at its best.

This is indeed an ideal destination for everyone, whether you are a foodie, an explorer, an adventurer, or a tranquility seeker. Not to forget the popular local festivals -  Keil Poldu (worship of weapons), Cauvery Shankaramana (return of the river goddess) and the Huttari (harvest).

Satisfy your love for adventure as you drive along the misty roads in the winter afternoons around the hills. Though the tinge of excitement is unnerving enough to boost your enthusiasm, do take care of the safety measures while you enjoy your exhilarating journey to Coorg. Make sure you do not miss out the mesmerizing towns including Gonikoppal, Somwarpet, Kushalnagar, Pollibetta, and Virajpet to add rewarding experiences to your Coorg itinerary. 

Madikeri is a hill town in southern India. Framed by the Western Ghats mountain range, it’s known for the Raja’s Seat, a simple monument overlooking forests and rice fields. In the center, the 17th-century Madikeri Fort features two stone elephants at the entrance. Nearby, the domed Omkareshwar Temple is dedicated to the Hindu deity Shiva. To the northwest, cascading Abbey Falls is surrounded by spice plantations.

Madikeri is the capital of the district and Raja's Seat park is popular with tourists. Kootu Poley dam is also popular among tourists. Omkareshwara Temple is a beautiful temple built in the Indo-Sarcenic style in Coorg. A legend is associated with the temple, built by Lingarajendra II in 1820 CE. The king put to death a pious Brahmin who dared to protest against his misdeeds. The spirit of the dead man began to plague the king day and night. On the advice of wise men, the king built this temple and installed a Shivalinga procured from Kashi, North India. St. Mark's Church is located within the Mercara Fort and was raised in 1859, by the officers and men of the East India Company. The building was funded by the Government of Madras, and placed under the Church of England in India, Diocese of Madras. The Church was closed after Indian independence, and taken over by the Government of Karnataka in 1971. The building now houses the Madikeri Fort Museum, managed by the Karnataka State Archaeological Department.

There are so many activities which you will love to try in Coorg like trekking, camping, etc to make it a memorable vacation. Some of these different activities are: - River rafting at Barapole river, Camping in Coorg, Cycling Tour To Kote Betta, Tadiandamol Trek, Mullayanagiri Trek, Zip lining, Archery,  Air rifle shooting,  Kodachadri Trek, Kumara Parvatha Trek, Microlight flying, Rock Climbing at Honnamana Kere, Mountain Biking in Chelavara, Quad Biking in Chelavara, Plantation Walk in Coorg and Sunset Jeep Drive at Mandalpatti.

Kodagu is rated as one of the top hill station destinations in India. Some of the most popular tourist attractions in Kodagu include Talakaveri, Bhagamandala, Nisargadhama, Abbey Falls, Dubare, Nagarahole National Park, Iruppu Falls, and the Tibetan Buddhist Golden Temple.

Talakaveri is the place where the River Kaveri originates. The temple on the riverbanks here is dedicated to Lord Brahma, and is one of only two temples dedicated to Brahma in India and Southeast Asia. Bhagamandala is situated at the Sangama (confluence) of two rivers, the Kaveri and the Kannika. A third river, the Sujyothi, is said to join from underground, and hence this spot is called the Triveni Sangama. Iruppu Falls is a sacred Kodagu Hindu spot in South Kodagu in the Brahmagiri hill range.

The Lakshmana Tirtha River, with the waterfalls, flows nearby and has a Rameshwara temple on its banks. It is said that this sacred river was created when Laxmana, prince of Ayodhya and younger brother of Lord Rama, shot an arrow into nearby hill, the Brahmagiri hill. Chelavara falls and Thadiandamol peak are also in South Kodagu. Nagarahole is a national park and wildlife resort.

Dubare is mainly an elephant-capturing and training camp of the Forest Department at the edge of Dubare forest; on the bank of the river Kaveri along the Kushalanagara – Siddapura road. Nisargadhama is a man-made island and picnic spot near Kushalanagara, formed by the river Kaveri. The Tibetan Buddhist Golden Temple is at Bylakuppe near Kushalnagara (Mysore district), in the Tibetan refugee settlement.

Abbey Falls is a scenic waterfall 5 km from Madikeri. Mallalli falls is 25 km from Somawarapet, downhill of the Pushpagiri hills. Mandalapatti is 28 km from Madikeri. On the way to Abbey Falls, before 3 km from Abbey Falls take right, from there 25 km. Kote Betta temple, Kote Abbey falls are also in North Kodagu. Abbi waterfall and other waterfalls are best during monsoon season, typically some days after it starts raining in June up to the end of rainy season, while there is more water gushing in the streams and rivers.

Coorg is a tourist place all year round and even the monsoon months of June-September is the favoured tourist season in Coorg since the beauty of this magnificent hill station is only enhanced by the rains.

The best time to visit Coorg is during the summer months between March and June. The best months are March and April, when the day time temperatures are comfortably hot. The valleys are shrouded in a mist, and you can go trekking, cycling or simply walking all about.

Porcupine Castle is one of the finest places to stay in Coorg. Its location in the midst of a 300-acre coffee plantation makes it one of the most breathtaking getaways in the Kodagu region.

Vatanappally Beach. Located at a distance of 17 km from Thrissur Railway station this is one of the most beautiful beaches near Coorg and is located on the coastal belt of Thrissur District. You can easily travel to this beach from the nearby city and spend a relaxing day off on its coast.

In Coorg, Kodavas speak the local language Kodagu, use Kannada as their official language and speak English, Hindi and other languages too. The South Dravidian languages - Toda, Kota, Irula, and Kurumba—are spoken by local Tribes (officially recognized indigenous peoples)

The most popular products to buy in Coorg are coffee, spices, dry fruits, honey, oranges, and chocolates. For shopping in Coorg, the best places to go to are: Kushalnagar Market, Stop n Shop and Friday Market.

The Kodava people love their pork and the delicious pandhi curry, will leave you wanting for more. Served with akki roti (rice roti) or kadambuttu (rice dumplings), the pork curry is cooked on all special occasions.

Also read:  Mangalore - a tourist destination

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Cintacor Island Resort, Karwar, Karnataka

Its close to Goa, this island resort in the Arabian Sea is just the right place for a dreamy vacation. The island of natural splendour and beauty offers the luxury to spend your holidays in a special way. In 1498 Vasco da Gama on his way to Goa, as they sailed north along the Konkan coast, discovered a beautiful natural harbour, formed by the islands off Karwar. They christened this Cintacora.

It’s a remote, upscale island hotel with a pool, a spa, a sea front bar and dinning. With 15 independent cabins, all facing the vast open sea. Its built for a family vacation as well as a romantic getaway for newly married couples.

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Picture Post:

The Golden temple, Vllore, India
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Anil Naik

WhatsApp: 91 9969154602
Email:
akn929@yahoo.com

 

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Thursday, 19 November 2020

Why Roopkund treks are so famous?

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Roopkund is a trekkers delight and it’s high altitude glacial lake, is known as the skeleton lake in the Himalayas. It’s in the Uttarakhand state in India. It lies in the lap of Trishul massif. Located in the Himalayas, the area around the lake is uninhabited and is roughly at an altitude of 16,470 feet, surrounded by rock-strewn glaciers and snow-clad mountains. Roopkund, a remote lake high in the Indian Himalaya, is home to one of archaeology’s spookiest mysteries: the skeletons of as many as 800 people. But the fact that all the bodies had died in a similar way, from blows to the head. However, the short deep cracks in the skulls appeared to be the result not of weapons, but rather of something rounded. The bodies also only had wounds on their heads, and shoulders as if the blows had all come from directly above. What had killed them all, porter and pilgrim alike?

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Roopkund locally known as Mystery Lake or Skeletons Lake is a high altitude glacial lake in the Uttarakhand state in India. It lies in the lap of Trishul massif. Located in the Himalayas, the area around the lake is uninhabited and is roughly at an altitude of 16,470 feet (5,020 m), surrounded by rock-strewn glaciers and snow-clad mountains. Roopkund is a popular trekking destination. Roopkund, a remote lake high in the Indian Himalaya, is home to one of archaeology’s spookiest mysteries: the skeletons of as many as 800 people. In the early 2000s, preliminary DNA studies had suggested that the people who died at Roopkund were of South Asian ancestry, and radiocarbon dates from around the site cluster at 800 A.D., a sign that they all died in a single event.

Situated at over 5,000 meters above sea level in the Himalayan Mountains, Roopkund Lake is home to the scattered skeletal remains of several hundred individuals of unknown origin. A report genome-wide ancient DNA for 38 skeletons from Roopkund Lake, and found that they cluster into three distinct groups. A group of 23 individuals have ancestry that falls within the range of variation of present-day South Asians. A further 14 have ancestry typical of the eastern Mediterranean. We also identify one individual with Southeast Asian-related ancestry. Radiocarbon dating indicates that these remains were not deposited simultaneously. Instead, all of the individuals with South Asian-related ancestry date to 800 CE (but with evidence of being deposited in more than one event), while all other individuals date to 1800 CE. These differences are also reflected in stable isotope measurements, which reveal a distinct dietary profile for the two main groups.

But the fact that all the bodies had died in a similar way, from blows to the head. However, the short deep cracks in the skulls appeared to be the result not of weapons, but rather of something rounded. The bodies also only had wounds on their heads, and shoulders as if the blows had all come from directly above. What had killed them all, porter and pilgrim alike?

Among Himalayan women there is an ancient and traditional folk song. The lyrics describe a goddess so enraged at outsiders who defiled her mountain sanctuary that she rained death upon them by flinging hailstones “hard as iron.” After much research and consideration, the 2004 expedition came to the same conclusion. All 200 people died from a sudden and severe hailstorm. Trapped in the valley with nowhere to hide or seek shelter, the “hard as iron” cricket ball-sized hailstones came by the thousands, resulting in the travelers’ bizarre sudden death. The remains lay in the lake for over 1,200 years until their discovery.Because of the human remains, the lake has been called Skeleton Lake in recent times.

With a depth of about 3 metres, Roopkund is widely known for the hundreds of ancient human skeletons found at the edge of the lake. The human skeletal remains are visible at its bottom when the snow melts. Research generally points to a semi-legendary event where a group of people was killed in a sudden, violent hailstorm in the 9th century. Because of the human remains, the lake has been called Skeleton Lake in recent times.

Skeletons were rediscovered in 1942 by Nanda Devi game reserve ranger Hari Kishan Madhwal, although there are reports about these bones from the late 9th century. At first, British authorities feared that the skeletons represented casualties of a hidden Japanese invasion force, but it was found that the skeletons were far too old to be Japanese soldiers. The skeletons are visible in the clear water of the shallow lake during one month when the ice melts. Along with the skeletons, wooden artifacts, iron spearheads, leather slippers, and rings were also found. When a team from National Geographic retrieved about 30 skeletons in 2003, flesh was still attached to some of them.

Local legend says that the King of Kanauj, Raja Jasdhaval, with his pregnant wife, Rani Balampa, their servants, a dance troupe and others went on a pilgrimage to Nanda Devi shrine, and the group faced a storm with large hailstones, from which the entire party perished near Roopkund Lake.

Remnants belonging to more than 300 people have been found. The Anthropological Survey of India conducted a study of the skeletons during the 1950s and some samples are displayed at the Anthropological Survey of India Museum, Dehradun. The studies of the skeletons revealed head injuries, which according to some sources were caused by round objects from above and the common cause of death. Those researchers concluded that the victims had been caught in a sudden hailstorm, just as described in local legends and songs.

Others, however, question this theory and the source of the injuries. Radiocarbon dating of the bones at Oxford University's Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit determined the time of death to be 850 CE ±30 years. More recently, radiocarbon dating combined with genome-analysis found that the remains are from very different eras and belong to different distinct groups. A group of remains with South Asian ancestry was dated over a period of time around 800 CE, while the other skeletal remains of Mediterranean or Southeast Asian origin were dated to around 1800 CE. Those findings counter the theory that the individuals died in a single catastrophic event. The radiocarbon dating further suggests that the older, South Asian remains were deposited over an extended period or time, while the younger, Mediterranean and Southeast Asian group of remains was deposited during a single event.Ancient DNA from the skeletons of Roopkund Lake reveals Mediterranean migrants in India.



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About wives!

I sometimes wonder – what if the husbands are asked to write a few lines about their wives?

It might go like this –

My wife is my wife. She is both my emotional anchor and storm and typhoon. She looks docile, but isn’t and has the ability to put with a person like me, who is never satisfied, happy or grumpy. She looks better than me and is a better human being than me. She is also more sensitive than me. She is a good mother and a good cook, and cooks what I like and not what she likes as if her likes are not important. She is a symbol of sacrifice. She is the one person who makes me more comfortable than me myself.

Knowingly or unknowingly, she agreed to be my better half and she regrets her decision from that day. However she has a special quality. She can predict and see things happening in advance, whereas I am deaf and blind to it. She will say – ‘This is going to happen’ and it does happen. Then she retorts – ‘See, I told you so.’ She is far more clear about life than I am, while I still try to understand life! And so sometimes I feel spoiled by her magnanimity.

Finally I realized, women have more brains and are more beautiful inside and outside, which makes them unique!

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Backwaters in Kerala, India
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Friday, 13 November 2020

How Jet Engines Work?


Many of you must have wondered at sometime or the other, how does a plane fly. And you must have got an answer, the plane flies with the help of a jet engine. Have you ever wondered how does the jet engine work and flies the big aeroplane to far off distances at great speed. The jet engine is one of the most advance innovations of mankind that has helped in flying and became a game changer. It provided a big boost to the aviation industry. Now people can reach far greater distances in much lesser time. It has also made flying safe, comfortable and a good experience.

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As you know birds fly by pushing air. Mankind has developed machines that mimics this action,  that push air; but one of the greatest machines that push air is the jet engine.  Jet engine suck air in the front and push a jet of air out at the back. That force is called thrust and it moves an airplane through the sky. 

It works on a principle - simply put, a big fan at the front of the engine pulls air around the engine and sucks air into the core. The air in the core goes into a compressor something like many household fans join together each fan gets smaller and smaller because the blades squeeze the air into a tighter and tighter space compressing it there. Like you would squeeze a balloon until that squeezed air is mixed with jet fuel, a kind of super gasoline in the combustor that air and fuel mix, a flame fires out the back of the engine and the rush of hot air spin the turbine and the  turbine is like a windmill that scoops up energy from the heated air and spins the shaft connected to the fan at the front of the engine, the excess hot air from the combustor blows out from the back of the engine producing thrust.

Airplane wings are shaped to make air move faster over the top of the wing. When air moves faster, the pressure of the air decreases. So the pressure on the top of the wing is less than the pressure on the bottom of the wing. The difference in pressure creates a force on the wing that lifts the wing up into the air. The plane's engines are designed to move it forward at high speed. That makes air flow rapidly over the wings, which throw the air down toward the ground, generating an upward force called lift that overcomes the plane's weight and holds it in the sky. The wings force the air downward and that pushes the plane upward.

The key difference between jets and propeller planes is that jets produce thrust through the discharge of gas instead of powering a drive shaft linked to a propeller. This allows jets to fly faster and at higher altitudes. All jet engines, which are also called gas turbines, work on the same principle. The engine sucks air in at the front with a fan. The blades spin at high speed and compress or squeeze the air. The compressed air is then sprayed with fuel and an electric spark lights the mixture. All jet engines, which are also called gas turbines, work on the same principle. The engine sucks air in at the front with a fan. The burning gases expand and blast out through the nozzle, at the back of the engine. As the jets of gas shoot backward, the engine and the aircraft are thrust forward.

At any given moment, there are something like 5,000 flights zipping through the sky over the United States alone and similarly around the world; we're so used to the idea of flight that we barely even notice all the planes screaming above us, hauling hundreds of people at a time to their homes and holidays. Most modern planes are powered by jet engines. What exactly are these magic machines and what makes them different from the engines used in cars or trucks?

A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion. While this broad definition can include rocket, water jet, and hybrid propulsion, the term jet engine typically refers to an air-breathing jet engine such as a turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, or pulse jet. In general, jet engines are internal combustion engines.

Air-breathing jet engines typically feature a rotating air compressor powered by a turbine, with the leftover power providing thrust through the propelling nozzle - this process is known as the Brayton thermodynamic cycle. Jet aircraft use such engines for long-distance travel. Early jet aircraft used turbojet engines that were relatively inefficient for subsonic flight. Most modern subsonic jet aircraft use more complex high-bypass turbofan engines. They give higher speed and greater fuel efficiency than piston and propeller aero-engines over long distances. A few air-breathing engines made for high speed applications (ramjets and scramjets) use the ram effect of the vehicle's speed instead of a mechanical compressor.

The thrust of a typical jetliner engine went from 5,000 lbf (22,000 N) (de Havilland Ghost turbojet) in the 1950s to 115,000 lbf (510,000 N) (General Electric GE90 turbofan) in the 1990s, and their reliability went from 40 in-flight shutdowns per 100,000 engine flight hours to less than 1 per 100,000 in the late 1990s. This, combined with greatly decreased fuel consumption, permitted routine transatlantic flight by twin-engined airliners by the turn of the century, where previously a similar journey would have required multiple fuel stops.

The combustion efficiency of most aircraft gas turbine engines at sea level takeoff conditions is almost 100%. It decreases to nearly to 98% at altitude cruise conditions. For any type of combustion chamber there is a rich and weak limit to the air-fuel ratio, beyond which the flame is extinguished. Passenger aircraft fly at a good speed, Commercial jet aircraft cruise at about 400 – 500 knots (460 – 575 mph / 740 – 930 kph). The speed of a private jet ranges from 400 to 711 miles per hour. When compared to a commercial airliner with top speeds just over 500 miles per hour, it is easy to decide that a private jet is the speediest aircraft to get you from here to there.

In fact, modern planes are designed to be able to glide for long distances without using engines. Even if every engine fails, the plane should still be able to glide to a landing spot. There's no set time limit on how long a plane can fly with one engine as long as you have fuel.

The Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird is the fastest jet aircraft in the world, reaching speeds of Mach 3.3, that's more than 3,500 kph (2,100 mph) and almost four times as fast as the average cruising speed of a commercial airliner. Key elements of the SR-71's design made this possible. Depending on the seat layout, the plane can carry as many as about 850 passengers, but the typical is closer to around 575. The plane entered commercial service in 2007, representing Airbus' gamble that a "hub-and-spoke" model would be the future of commercial air travel.

The ‘sweet spot’ of flying is regarded as between 35,000 and 42,000 feet – too high and the oxygen becomes too sparse to fuel the engines, too low and the air resistance is greater. This optimum height is linked to the usual weight of a commercial jet – that is, heavier planes fly lower, and lighter higher.

Airline engines (for example the Rolls Royce Trent series) usually have TBOs of over 15000 hours. The record for maximum time for an engine on wing (use in aircraft before removal for overhaul) is well over 40,000 hours. The life of an engine is given by the manufacturer and are different for different engines. It may take up to 2 months to complete, and is usually only performed 2 to 3 times per aircraft lifetime, as it is performed every 6 to 10 years. Often, airlines will opt to scrap, or sell off, older aircraft that are nearing their ‘D’ checks, simply because of the ridiculous amount of time, people and money required.

Generally, there are no scheduled oil changes for jet engines. During engine maintenance, however, oil filters and seals are checked and changed if necessary. Typical ‘top-ups’ are done on a daily basis, so jet engines always have some fresh oil but rarely need a complete oil change. The three items needed to keep a jet engine operating are fuel, air, and a source of heat to make them burn. While rain can have an influence on the function of a jet engine, but does not have a significant effect. The majority of storms produce light rain or snow that has little if any impact on an engine.

In an emergency, the aircraft will glide perfectly well even if all its engines fail. If both engines fail, the aeroplane is no longer being pushed forward, therefore in order to keep the air flowing over the wings, the aircraft must exchange energy through losing altitude to maintain forward airspeed. Jet engines are expensive. They are highly optimized machines containing thousands of parts. The parts used are made of expensive, exotic materials, which are often very expensive. The  engine has to be assembled by skilled mechanics over many hours.

Gas turbine aircraft engines such as turbojets, turboshafts and turbofans often use air/pneumatic starting, with the use of bleed air from built-in auxiliary power units (APUs) or external air compressors now seen as a common starting method. Often only one engine needs be started using the APU (or remote compressor). The compressed kerosene-air mixture then ignites, after which the motor then operates independently. This operation is carried out for each engine, generally one after the other, and takes about one minute. This jet engine automatic start procedure is the most common.

Who makes the best jet engines in the world? - General Electric. GE Aviation, part of the General Electric conglomerate, currently has the largest share of the turbofan engine market. Next is Rolls-Royce, Pratt & Whitney, CFM International, Engine Alliance, International Aero Engines,Williams International and Honeywell Aerospace.

Jet fuels are typically made by blending and refining various crude oil petroleum distillation products such as naphtha, gasoline, or kerosene in order to meet specific military or commercial specifications (Air Force 1989b).

One of the first engine makers Pratt and Whitney recently designed a new jet engine that lets the fan push air more slowly than the turbine by putting an amazing gear between them, Pratt & Whitney called this the pure power engine because it uses less fuel and makes more thrust at the same time with less fuel, saving money and cuts back on pollution which is better for the environment and all living things and when the fan moves slowly the noise drops so much you can barely hear the airplane in the sky it's a new design for jet engines and a new era for jet airplanes that we all can enjoy.

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Ancient caves in Mumbai:

In the western suburb of Mumbai, on the outskirts, are the Kanheri caves, which date back to more than 2,000 years. The caves – 140 in total are in good condition, all carved out of a single black rock, contain many ancient Buddhist sculptures, carvings, paintings and inscriptions dating from 1st century BCE to 10 th century CE.

The Kanheri Caves are a group of rock-cut monuments formed from a massive basalt rock in the forests of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park on the western outskirts of Mumbai. They contain Buddhist sculptures and relief carvings, paintings and inscriptions. Kanheri comes from the Sanskrit name, Krishnagiri, which means, black mountain. Each cave has a stone plinth that functioned as a bed. A congregation hall with huge stone pillars contains a stupa (a Buddhist shrine). Rock-cut channels above the caves fed rainwater into cisterns, which provided the complex with water. Once the caves were converted to permanent monasteries, their walls were carved with intricate reliefs of Buddha and the Bodhisattvas. Kanheri had become an important Buddhist settlement on the Konkan coast by the 3rd century CE. Most of the caves were used as the Buddhist viharas, meant for living, studying and meditating. The larger caves, functioned as chaitvas, or halls for congregational worship. The Avalokiteshwara is the most distinctive figure.

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