Tuesday, 26 November 2019

Indian Constitution




26 November is commemorated as the National Constitution Day. The Indian Constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly having 284 members, with BR Ambedkar, Chairman of the drafting committee. And he was considered as the chief architect of the constitution. It’s considered to be the most complete constitution. It was effective from 26 January 1950. Indian citizens and politicians vouch by the Indian Constitution....



The Constitution of India or Bhāratīya Saṃvidhān as it known in Hindi is the supreme law in India. A Constitution is a set of rules and regulations guiding the administration of a country. The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. The document lays down the framework demarcating fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens.

It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950. The constitution replaced the Government of India Act, 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document, and the Dominion of India became the Republic of India. To ensure constitutional autochthony, its framers repealed prior acts of the British parliament in Article 395. India celebrates its constitution on 26 January as Republic Day.

Constituent Assembly of India meeting
 in 1950
The constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens justice, equality and liberty, and endeavors to promote fraternity. The original 1950 constitution is preserved at the Parliament House in New Delhi. The words "secular" and "socialist" were added to the preamble in 1976 during the emergency.

The constitution was drawn from a number of sources. Mindful of India's needs and conditions, its framers borrowed features of previous legislation such as the Government of India Act 1858, the Indian Councils Acts of 1861, 1892 and 1909, the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935, and the Indian Independence Act 1947. The latter, led to the creation of India and Pakistan, divided the former Constituent Assembly in two. Each new assembly had sovereign power to draft and enact a new constitution for the separate states.

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B. R. Ambedkar, Sanjay Phakey, Jawaharlal Nehru, C Rajagopalachari, Rajendra Prasad, Vallabhbhai Patel, Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi, Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar, Sandipkumar Patel, Abdul Kalam AzadAbul Kalam, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Nalini Ranjan Ghosh and Balwantrai Mehta were key figures in the assembly, which had over 30 representatives of the scheduled classes. Frank Anthony represented the Anglo-Indian community, and the Parsis were represented by H. P. Modi. Harendra Coomar Mookerjeee, a Christian assembly vice-president, chaired the minorities committee and represented non-Anglo-Indian Christians. Ari Bahadur Gurung represented the Gorkha community. Judges, such as Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, Benegal Narsing Rau, K. M. Munshi and Ganesh Mavlankar were members of the assembly. Female members included Sarojini Naidu, Hansa Mehta, Durgabai Deshmukh, Amrit Kaur and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit.

Jawaharlal Nehru signing the
constitution
The first, two-day president of the assembly was Sachchidananda Sinha; Rajendra Prasad was later elected president. It met for the first time on 9 December 1946.

26 November is commemorated as the National Constitution Day. The Indian Constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly having 284 members, with BR Ambedkar, Chairman of the drafting committee. And he was considered as the chief architect of the constitution. It’s considered to be the most complete constitution. It was effective from 26 January 1950. Indian citizens and politicians vouch by the Indian Constitution.

Interesting facts about the Indian Constitution:
*The longest constitution in the world – The Indian Constitution is the longest of any sovereign country in the world. At the time of its commencement, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules.

Constituent Assembly- Dr BR Ambedkar
Chairman of Drafting Committee
presenting the final draft of Constitution

*Handwritten by Prem Behari Narain Raizada – The original Constitution of India was handwritten by Prem Behari Narain Raizada in flowing italic style with beautiful calligraphy. Each page was beautified and decorated by artists from Shantiniketan.
*200 amendments later – The Constituent Assembly, which first met on Dec 9, 1946, took precisely two years, 11 months and 18 days to come up with a final draft. When the first draft was prepared and put for debate and discussion; over 2000 amendments were made before it was finalized.
*Safely stored away – The original copies of the Indian Constitution, written in both Hindi and English, are kept in special helium-filled cases in the Library of the Parliament of India.
*Known as ‘A Bag of Borrowings’ – The Indian Constitution has drawn from constitutions of various nations around the world such as France, the USSR, Germany and more. For this reason, our constitution is often known as a bag of borrowings.


The Indian constitution is the world’s longest for a sovereign nation. At its enactment, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. At about 145,000 words, it is the second-longest active constitution – after the Constitution of Alabama – in the world.
The constitution has a preamble and 448 articles, which are grouped into 25 parts. With 12 schedules and five appendices, it has been amended 103 times.







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Strange New Year Traditions

*In India and other places a giant old man made of hay, etc and dressed in old shirt and pant is burnt at the stroke of midnight, signifying the end of the old year and the beginning of the New Year.
*In Bolivia, Venezuela, men wear new underpants on New Year’s eve – red underpants for love and yellow for money.
*Spaniards eat 12 grapes at midnight; each grape symbolizing one month of year.
*The Filipinos wear polka dots and arrange round fruits on the dinner table. Polka and all things round signify coins, hence prosperity.
*In Scotland, the townsmen walk around with giant fireballs hoisted on long poles (resembling the sun) to purify the coming year.
* The Danes break glass dishes on the doors of neighbours and friends.
*Estonians eat seven times on the first day of the year to ensure abundant food throughout the year.
*Unmarried Irish girls place mistletoe leaves under the pillow to catch a good husband.


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Picture Post:


Chittorgarh Fort, Rajasthan
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